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To explore the microscopic mechanism of the reported tunable ferroelectricity, ab-initio DFT calculations were performed for a periodic [(LaMnO 3 ) 2 /(SrMnO 3 ) 2 /(NdMnO 3 ) 2 ] SL, as represented in Fig. 3a , with in-plane strain appropriate for epitaxial growth on an SrTiO 3 (001) substrate (see Methods for details). Because of computational constraints, we restricted our study only to short period n =2 SLs. The formal charge layering of the LaMnO 3 and NdMnO 3 components gives rise to a polar discontinuity at the interface of these with SrMnO 3 , leading to charge transfer and off-centering of both the Mn and the A-site cations with respect to the interconnected lattice of O octahedral in response to macroscopic internal electric fields. This off-centering is characterized by the average out-of-plane component of the displacement between metal cations and oxygen anions in each atomic layer, as plotted in Fig. 3b (left axis). The inherent A-site cationic asymmetry of this tri-layer SL leads to a pattern of such displacements that does not possess space inversion symmetry, and therefore to a macroscopic polarization as can be clearly seen in the red points in Fig. 3b , which we refer to as the + P state. For such a structure to be considered as FE, however, there must be a complementary state with opposite polarization orientation. Such a state can be constructed by inverting the pattern of atomic displacements, but keeping the chemical identity of each site the same as in the + P state. After relaxation, we find a pattern of metal–oxygen displacements approximately inverted with respect to the + P state. We label this inverted state as − P and plot the displacements in blue in Fig. 3b . Given these two stable polarization states with opposite orientation, we can estimate the energy profile associated with polarization reversal by linearly scaling the atomic structure between the two stable minima, keeping track of the total energy of each tested structure. This scaling is parameterized by the dimensionless parameter λ , where λ =±1 corresponds to the ± P state. The − P state has energy 50 meV per cell above the + P state. The resulting double-well energy profile, plotted in Fig. 3c , is entirely consistent with what is expected for ferroelectricity in compositionally ordered structures with broken inversion symmetry .

() Structure of the SL unit cell used in the calculations. Mn ions are surrounded by a distorted octahedron of O (small red spheres), and the black arrows represent the magnetic moment orientation of each Mn site. The -site cations La, Sr and Nd are represented by blue, green and yellow spheres, respectively. () Average cation–anion (metal–oxygen, M–O) displacements along the SL direction (left axis). The red and blue circles correspond to the + and − states, respectively. The difference in average total magnetic moment between + and − states, Δ, (right vertical axis) of each MnO layer is also plotted (open circles). () Energy per cell as a function of the parameter that scales between the + and − states (see text). () Spin-polarized local density of states (LDOS) projected on the Mn-3 orbitals, averaged over the two inequivalent Mn sites in each MnO layer. Each panel from top to bottom corresponds to the atomic layer depicted immediately to the left in . The upper sub-panels are for up-spin electrons, and the lower sub-panels are for down-spin electrons. The filled plots in the background of the second, fourth and sixth panels are the Mn-3 projected LDOS in bulk LaMnO, SrMnO and NdMnO, respectively. () Spin-polarized LDOS for the − state, ordered the same as in .

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The bi-stability of the structure is intimately coupled to the charge transferred in response to the interfacial polar discontinuity. Quinn Ribbed Chelsea Boots Superdry Buy Cheap High Quality HMcZlVNm
shows the Mn-3 d projected local density of states (LDOS) near the Fermi level ( E F ) on each of the MnO 2 atomic layers in the + P state (corresponding plots for the − P state are shown in Fig. 3e ). Although all three components of the SL are insulating in the bulk (see the filled plots in the background of the second, fourth and sixth panels), there is non-zero LDOS at E F for the 'up'-spin electrons on the MnO 2 layers above and below the central G-type ordered layer. All other MnO 2 layers are essentially gapped, except the layer sandwiched on both sides by LaO layers, where there is non-zero LDOS at E F for the 'down'-spin states. The reverse polarization state ( Fig. 3e ), − P , exhibits similar charge transfer profile, except in this case the 'down'-spin charge is trapped in the NdMnO 3 layer (compare bottom layers in Fig. 3d,e ), whereas the LaMnO 3 layer, which held the down-spin charge in the + P state, is now essentially bulk-like (compare the second layer from the top in Fig. 3d,e ). The difference in the 'down'-spin charged states at the LaMnO 3 and NdMnO 3 layers between + P and − P states, respectively, is essential to produce the polarization bi-stability. This bi-stability in the position of the interface charge clearly gives rise to the switchable behaviour of the structure similar to that known for FE thin films sandwiched between two metal electrodes, and the interface charge may be interpreted as the 'screening' charge for polar displacements in the heterostructure .

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Webinar: ReversingCognitiveDeclineUtilizing a Functional Medicine Approach

May 8 @ 1:00 pm - 2:00 pm

Asian Indian in Nutrition and Dietetic Member Group of the Academy extend the invitation to attend state of the art webinar. Please register immediately upon receiving this announcement to reserve your spot . Kindly share with your friends.

Title : ReversingCognitiveDeclineUtilizing a Functional Medicine Approach

Speaker : Aarti Batavia MS, RDN, CLT, IFMCP.

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Date: Tuesday, May 8, 2018

Time: 1:00 pm EDT / 12:00 pm CDT / 11:00 am MDT / 10:00 am PDT

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Note this session will be presented using VOIP. A phone number will not be available

1.5 FREE CPEU Credits will be earned for live attendance

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Webinar will be recorded and posted to the AIND website for later viewing. SLIDES and RECORDING will be sent to ALL REGISTRANTS

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Description :

“No one should die of Alzheimer’s Disease”- Dale Bredesen. The global epidemic of Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia is recognized by the World Health Organization as a public health priority. It is estimated that 36 million people worldwide live with dementia, with numbers expected to reach 115 million by 2050. With an estimated 7.7 million new cases each year, dementia prevention is an urgent priority, not just to reduce incidence but also to slow, stall the progression and possibly reverse cognitive decline. A multi-modal programmatic approach utilizing functional medicine is emerging as a potential intervention to enhance clinical outcomes for individuals with dementia. In this webinar, the speaker will discuss the role of RDN in optimizingcognitivehealth utilizing a functional medicine approach.

Presenter :

Aarti BataviaMS, RDN, CLT, CFSP, IFMCP, isone of the very few advanced functional medicine practitioners who is not only IFM-Certified but also trained by the research neurologist and author Dr. Dale Bredesen himself to implement “The Bredesen Protocol” utilizing the systems biology approach.She is the owner of Nutrition and Wellness Consulting and a visiting faculty at Wayne State University.Aarti holds a Master’s Degree in Food Science, Nutrition and Dietetics from Mumbai, India, and a Coordinated Program in Dietetics from Wayne State University. Aarti currently serves as:

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